CSEM for CO2 Storage – Feasibility Study at Smeaheia to Optimise Acquisition
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- NGI articles 
In this work, we evaluate the use of controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) for CO2 monitoring at Smeaheia, a possible candidate for future phases of the Norwegian full-scale CCS project. CSEM is sensitive to electrically resistive material replacing conductive pore water in the pore space, which enables to infer volumetric estimates of the injected CO2 in the formation. CSEM is often used in combination with high-resolution seismic reflection data due to the sensitivity of the two methods to complementary physical properties. Here, we present a technique to optimise the CSEM survey parameters for efficient 4D surveying. Realistic synthetic models prior to and after injection are derived from reservoir modelling and converted to electrical resistivities. Inversion tests are carried out in 2D for the baseline and monitor cases considering realistic data errors. We show that the resistivity changes due to CO2 injection can be monitored using CSEM. We discuss the optimal orientation of the receivers, frequency range and transmitter-receiver offset. We finally discuss a strategy for optimal survey design based on the sensitivity to the CO2 plume.