Particle simulation of snow avalanche motion
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- NGI articles 
Original versionCold Regions Science and Technology, 9(3), 191-202.doi:10.1016/0165-232X(84)90066-1
The continuum model of a snow avalanche is abandoned, and instead an avalanche is modeled as a collection of particles that move randomly and independently subject to gravity and resistive forces which have a random fluctuation computed by Monte-Carlo simulation. The model includes entrainment at the avalanche front and the possibility of varying resistive parameters with speed and slope position. Particle statistics computed for an avalanche event in Norway, April 1982, provide a reasonable simulation of recorded speeds and debris distribution.