Empirical approach based on centrifuge testing for cyclic deformations of laterally loaded piles in sand
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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- NGI articles 
A systematic study into the response of monopiles to lateral cyclic loading in medium dense and dense sand was performed in beam and drum centrifuge tests. The centrifuge tests were carried out at different cyclic load and magnitude ratios, while the cyclic load sequence was also varied. The instrumentation on the piles provides fresh insights into the ongoing development of net stresses, bending moments and deflections as cycling progresses. Parallels between the test results and corresponding cyclic triaxial tests are drawn. The paper combines the results from this study with those from previous experimental investigations to provide empirical design recommendations for monopiles subjected to unidirectional cyclic loading.