Leaching and transport of PFAS from aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) in the unsaturated soil at a firefighting training facility under cold climatic conditions
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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- NGI articles 
Original versionJournal of Contaminant Hydrology. 2019, 222 112-122. 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2019.02.010
The contaminant situation at a Norwegian firefighting training facility (FTF) was investigated 15 years after the use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) based aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) products had ceased. Detailed mapping of the soil and groundwater at the FTF field site in 2016, revealed high concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFOS accounted for 96% of the total PFAS concentration in the soil with concentrations ranging from <0.3 μg/kg to 6500 μg/kg. The average concentration of PFOS in the groundwater down-gradient of the site was 22 μg/l (6.5–44.4 μg/l), accounting for 71% of the total PFAS concentration...