ACT4storage - Acoustic and Chemical Technologies for environmental GCS monitoring. D4 - Recommended guidelines report
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- NGI report 
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a promising tool for accelerating decarbonization and reaching international climate goals. The process involves capturing CO2 from energy-intensive industries such as waste-to-energy plants, fertilizer production, and fossil fuel combustion, and injecting it into suitable geological formations for safe and permanent storage instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. A dedicated monitoring plan is required to verify that the CO2 is safely stored over time and to detect and quantify leakage if it should occur. For offshore carbon storage, the primary monitoring is based on seismic methods and in-well monitoring, complemented by marine monitoring targeting the seabed and the water column above the storage reservoir. This report is intended to provide support for parties involved in the design of a marine monitoring program for offshore CCS sites. ...