Avalanche studies and model validation in Europe, SATSIE. Ryggfonn measurements winter 2004/2005
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- NGI report 
This report presents data collected from the full-scale avalanche test site Ryggfonn during the Winter 2004/2005. The weather and snow conditions are described and when possible, the avalanches have been characterized according to the IAHS avalanche code and the deposit boundaries have been mapped. Measurements obtained from the avalanche path include impact pressure readings from two load cells at a steel tower as well as impact pressures on three load cells fixed to a concrete structure. In addition, normal stress and shear stress were measured at two locations at a 16 m high dam. Six geophones, placed in the ground in the runout zone, have detected vibrations from some of the passing avalanches. When possible, for each avalanche the front speeds have been estimated. This estimates are based on pulsed Doppler radar measurements, seismic measurements, and the timing between impacts on the constructions. The pulsed Doppler radar provided also velocity measures from the avalanche body. The measurements obtained are briefty discussed and presented in graphs.